Job analysis identifies observable knowledge and skills as well as verifiable abilities and other personal characteristics required by the job (vs. personal characteristics of the employee). The job itself, not the person performing it, is the focus of objectively and systematically identifying the behavioral components such as duties, tasks, and activities across situations and over time.
A well-defined analysis includes:
· Descriptive components – how a job is done
· Prescriptive components – how a job should be done
· Predictive components – how a job will be done
Comprehensive job analyses derived from systematic study of the duties of the positions yield the foundation for sound HR practices including
· Workforce planning, recruitment, hiring, placement, and staffing
· Feedback, evaluation, and performance criteria management
· Pay, equitable rewards, promotion, and career advancement
· Productivity, safety concerns, flexibility, and return on investment for the employer
A well-tailored job analysis process focuses on the organization’s needs while being flexible, cost-effective, and efficient in its collection of information about critical tasks under review. Consideration is always given to practical constraints and personal preferences throughout the process.